Characterization of KRAS mutation subtypes in non-small cell lung cancer

Julia Judd, Nagla Abdel Karim, Hina Khan, Abdul Rafeh Naqash, Yasmine Baca, Joanne Xiu, Ari M. VanderWalde, Hirva Mamdani, Luis E. Raez, Misako Nagasaka, Sachin Gopalkrishna Pai, Mark A. Socinski, Jorge J. Nieva, Chul Kim, Antoinette J. Wozniak, Chukwuemeka Ikpeazu, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Alexander I. Spira, W. Michael Korn, Edward S. KimStephen V. Liu, Hossein Borghaei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in NSCLC and development of direct KRAS inhibitors has renewed interest in this molecular variant. Different KRAS mutations may represent a unique biologic context with different prognostic and therapeutic impact. We sought to characterize genomic landscapes of advanced, KRAS-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a large national cohort to help guide future therapeutic development. Molecular profiles of 17,095 NSCLC specimens were obtained using DNA next-generation sequencing of 592 genes (Caris Life Sciences) and classified on the basis of presence and subtype of KRAS mutations. Co-occurring genomic alterations, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and PD-L1 expression [22C3, tumor proportion score (TPS) score] were analyzed by KRAS mutation type. Across the cohort, 4,706 (27.5%) samples harbored a KRAS mutation. The most common subtype was G12C (40%), followed by G12V (19%) and G12D (15%). The prevalence of KRAS mutations was 37.2% among adenocarcinomas and 4.4% in squamous cell carcinomas. Rates of high TMB (≥10 mutations/Mb) and PD-L1 expression varied across KRAS mutation subtypes. KRAS G12C was the most likely to be PD-L1 positive (65.5% TPS ≥ 1%) and PD-L1 high (41.3% TPS ≥ 50%). STK11 was mutated in 8.6% of KRAS wild-type NSCLC but more frequent in KRAS-mutant NSCLC, with the highest rate in G13 (36.2%). TP53 mutations were more frequent in KRAS wild-type NSCLC (73.6%). KRAS mutation subtypes have different co-occurring mutations and a distinct genomic landscape. The clinical relevance of these differences in the context of specific therapeutic interventions warrants investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2577-2584
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular cancer therapeutics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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