Characteristics predicting nursing home admission in the program of all-inclusive care for elderly people

Susan M. Friedman, Donald M. Steinwachs, Paul J. Rathouz, Lynda C. Burton, Dana B. Mukamel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study determined overall risk and predictors of long-term nursing home admission within the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Design and Methods: DataPACE records for 4,646 participants aged 55 years or older who were enrolled in 12 Medicare- and Medicaid-capitated PACE programs during the period from June 1, 1990, to June 30, 1998, were obtained. Participants were enrolled for at least 30 days and had baseline evaluations within 30 days of enrollment. Cox proportional hazard models predicting an outcome of nursing home admission of 30 days or longer were estimated. Results: The cumulative risk of admission to nursing homes for 30 days or longer was 14.9% within 3 years. Individuals enrolled from a nursing home were at very high risk for future admission, with a relative risk of 5.20 when compared with those living alone. Among individuals enrolled in PACE from the community, age, instrumental activity of daily living dependence, and bowel incontinence were predictive of subsequent nursing home admission. Asians and Blacks had a lower risk of institutionalization than Whites. However, other characteristics were not independently predictive of institutionalization, namely poor cognitive status, number of chronic conditions, activity of daily living deficits, urinary incontinence, several behavioral disturbances, and duration of program operation. Before adjusting for other variables, there was substantial site variability in risk of nursing home admission; this decreased considerably after other characteristics were adjusted for. Implications: Despite the fact that 100% of the PACE participants were nursing home certifiable, the risk of being admitted to a nursing home long term following enrollment from the community is low. The presence of some reversible risk factors may have implications for early intervention to reduce risk further, although the effect of these interventions is likely to be modest. Individuals who received long-term care in a nursing home prior to enrollment in PACE remain at high risk of readmission, despite the availability of comprehensive services.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-166
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Health services utilization
  • Long-term care
  • Managed care
  • Nursing homes
  • PACE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


Dive into the research topics of 'Characteristics predicting nursing home admission in the program of all-inclusive care for elderly people'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this