Characteristics and Outcomes of Percutaneous Biliary Interventions in the United States

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Objective: To explore baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and clinical diagnoses in the prediction of outcomes for inpatient percutaneous biliary interventions in the United States. Methods: Hospitalizations for percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and percutaneous biliary drainage were studied using the National Inpatient Sample 2012 to 2015. Associations between baseline characteristics, comorbidities, clinical diagnoses, and outcomes were analyzed using multivariable regression modeling. Regional variations were studied in an exploratory analysis. Results: Hospitalizations for percutaneous biliary interventions had average inpatient mortality of 3.8% ± 0.8% and length of stay of 7.6 ± 0.3 days. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (50.5% ± 0.8%), and paralysis was associated with the highest inpatient mortality (19.1% ± 5.7%) and length of stay (11.4 ± 1.3 days). Compared with nonmalignant biliary-pancreatic disorders, sepsis was associated with the highest inpatient mortality (6.5% ± 1.1%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.2 [3.9-7.0]) and length of stay (9.0 ± 3.0 days; aOR: 2.2 [1.9-2.5]), followed by underlying malignancy (mortality of 5.5% ± 0.6%; aOR: 2.3 [1.7-3.0]; length of stay of 8.3 ± 0.2 days; aOR: 1.6 [1.4-1.8]). The observed associations were independent of baseline characteristics and comorbidities. With regard to regional variations, the Middle Atlantic states had the lengthiest hospital stays (38.8% ± 2.0% >8 days) and the East South Central states had the highest inpatient mortality (6.6% ± 1.6%) while having the highest frequency of malignancy (37.9% ± 3.7%) and the lowest frequency of postoperative cases (15.2% ± 2.4%). Conclusion: In addition to baseline characteristics and comorbidities, sepsis and malignancy were determinants of higher mortality and increased length of stay in hospitalizations for percutaneous biliary interventions. We observed significant regional variations in clinical diagnoses and outcomes across the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1059-1068
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Comorbidities
  • outcomes
  • percutaneous biliary drainage
  • percutaneous biliary intervention
  • percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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