Life expectancy among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals has improved dramatically with effective antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, chronic diseases such as end-stage liver and kidney disease are growing causes of morbidity and mortality. HIV+ individuals can have excellent outcomes after solid organ transplantation, and the need for transplantation in this population is increasing. However, there is a significant organ shortage, and HIV+ individuals experience higher mortality rates on transplant waitlists. In South Africa, the use of organs from HIV+ deceased donors (HIVDD) has been successful, but until recently federal law prohibited this practice in the United States. With the recognition that organs from HIVDD could fill a critical need, the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act was passed in November 2013, reversing the federal ban on the use of HIV+ donors for HIV+ recipients. In translating this policy into practice, the biologic risks of using HIV+ donors need to be carefully considered. In this mini-review, we explore relevant aspects of HIV virology, antiretroviral treatment, drug resistance, opportunistic infections and HIV-related organ dysfunction that are critical to a transplant team considering HIV-to-HIV transplantation.
- Infection and infectious agents
- kidney failure/injury
- liver (native) function/dysfunction
- viral: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pharmacology (medical)