Cervicovaginal evaluation in macaques used as a model for topical microbicide safety studies

Diana G. Scorpio, Dawn S. Ruben, Zhaohao Liao, James E. Hildreth, Craig A. Fletcher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Introduction: Macaques are a commonly used non-human primate (NHP) model to evaluate safety and efficacy of topically applied vaginal microbicides. Cervicovaginal evaluation for topical microbicide safety studies requires proper technique, equipment, supplies, and sequence of sample collection. Materiala and methods: Eleven rhesus macaques received a comprehensive sequential cervicovaginal examination under sedation before treatment and 24 hours post-instillation of test material. Examination was initiated with colposcopy, followed by diagnostics including vaginal culture, pH determination, cervicovaginal lavage, and cervicovaginal biopsy. Results: Overall, the methods performed yielded samples that were appropriate for diagnostic evaluation and interpretation, and the macaques experienced minimal discomfort and complications. Discussion: This paper provides a descriptive summary of compiled techniques required to conduct a safety evaluation for topically applied vaginal microbicides. This novel method-based approach should be methodically executed when evaluating a vaginally-applied, topical microbicide candidate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-73
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of medical primatology
Issue numberSUPPL.1
StatePublished - Feb 2008


  • Cervix
  • Colposcopy
  • Non-human primate
  • Rhesus
  • Vaginal pH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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