Cervical intraepithelial changes & HIV infection in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India

S. Joshi, A. Chandorkar, G. Krishnan, A. Walimbe, R. Gangakhedkar, A. Risbud, V. Jadhav, R. Bollinger, S. M. Mehendale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background & objectives: Cervical cancer is the most important cause of malignancy associated deaths among women in India. Western studies have reported higher risk of abnormal Pap smears in HIV infected women. A large burden of HIV infection and increasing HIV epidemic in India threatens to exacerbate incidence of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Pap smear abnormalities and its association with HIV infection in women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and to identify associated risk factors. Methods: Between June 1996 and September 1999, women attending two STD clinics in Pune were screened for HIV infection, offered STD laboratory diagnosis and treatment and their Pap smears were evaluated. Results: Squamous cell abnormality was detected in 10 per cent of HIV sero negative women attending STD clinics. This proportion was nearly double (19.2%) (Odds ratio=2.14, 95% C.l. 1.03-4.48, P=0.04) in HIV seropositive women. Having more than one life time partners and presence of STDs were also significantly associated with Pap smear abnormality in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, women presenting with STD and HIV infection both, were 2.8 times more likely to have inflammatory Pap smear and 3.5 times more likely to have abnormal Pap smear compared to HIV seronegative women presenting without STDs. Interpretation & conclusion: Pap smear abnormalities were common in women attending STD clinics in Pune. Presence of HIV infection further increased the risk two-folds. Therefore, women suffering from STDs should undergo periodic Pap smear screening for early detection of cervical abnormalities and should receive appropriate management to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-169
Number of pages9
JournalIndian Journal of Medical Research
Issue numberMAY
StatePublished - Oct 11 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Cervical cancer
  • HIV infection
  • Intraepithelial changes
  • Pap smears

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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