Cervical cancer risk in women living with HIV across four continents: A multicohort study

Eliane Rohner, Lukas Bütikofer, Kurt Schmidlin, Mazvita Sengayi, Mhairi Maskew, Janet Giddy, Katayoun Taghavi, Richard D. Moore, James J. Goedert, M. John Gill, Michael J. Silverberg, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Pragna Patel, Jessica L. Castilho, Jeremy Ross, Annette Sohn, Firouze Bani-Sadr, Ninon Taylor, Vassilios Paparizos, Fabrice BonnetAnnelies Verbon, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Frank A. Post, Caroline Sabin, Amanda Mocroft, Fernando Dronda, Niels Obel, Sophie Grabar, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Cristina Mussini, José M. Miro, Laurence Meyer, Barbara Hasse, Deborah Konopnicki, Bernardino Roca, Diana Barger, Gary M. Clifford, Silvia Franceschi, Matthias Egger, Julia Bohlius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord. We used flexible parametric survival models to determine regional ICC rates and risk factors for incident ICC. We included 64,231 women from 45 countries. During 320,141 person-years (pys), 356 incident ICC cases were diagnosed (Europe 164, South Africa 156, North America 19 and Latin America 17). Raw ICC incidence rates per 100,000 pys were 447 in South Africa (95% confidence interval [CI]: 382–523), 136 in Latin America (95% CI: 85–219), 76 in North America (95% CI: 48–119) and 66 in Europe (95% CI: 57–77). Compared to European women ICC rates at 5 years after ART initiation were more than double in Latin America (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27–4.68) and 11 times higher in South Africa (aHR: 10.66, 95% CI: 6.73–16.88), but similar in North America (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.37–1.71). Overall, ICC rates increased with age (>50 years vs. 16–30 years, aHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03–2.40) and lower CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (per 100 cell/μl decrease, aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15–1.36). Improving access to early ART initiation and effective cervical cancer screening in women living with HIV should be key parts of global efforts to reduce cancer-related health inequities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)601-609
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020


  • HIV
  • cervical cancer
  • cohort study
  • incidence rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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