Cerebral arteriovenous shunting: Direct carotid-cavernous fistulas

Lee H. Monsein, Daniele Rigamonti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Extrapial, carotid-cavernous, direct arteriovenous shunts or direct carotid-cavernous fistulas, as they are commonly referred to, are usually due to head trauma. Patients usually present with ophthalmologic symptoms but can suffer a host of neuroradiological problems. Modern minimally invasive techniques have been developed for the successful treatment of most of these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-266
Number of pages16
JournalNeurosurgery Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996


  • Carotid artery
  • Cavernous sinus
  • Detachable balloon
  • Fistula

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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