Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles

Porntip Pan-In, Supason Wanichwecharungruang, Justin Hanes, Anthony J. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles-GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles-successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3677-3686
Number of pages10
JournalInternational journal of nanomedicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 6 2014


  • Cancer
  • Cellulose
  • Intracellular trafficking
  • Nanoparticles
  • Phytotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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