Causal inference for non-mortality outcomes in the presence of death

Brian L. Egleston, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Ellen E. Freeman, Sheila K. West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Evaluation of the causal effect of a baseline exposure on a morbidity outcome at a fixed time point is often complicated when study participants die before morbidity outcomes are measured. In this setting, the causal effect is only well defined for the principal stratum of subjects who would live regardless of the exposure. Motivated by gerontologic researchers interested in understanding the causal effect of vision loss on emotional distress in a population with a high mortality rate, we investigate the effect among those who would live both with and without vision loss. Since this subpopulation is not readily identifiable from the data and vision loss is not randomized, we introduce a set of scientifically driven assumptions to identify the causal effect. Since these assumptions are not empirically verifiable, we embed our methodology within a sensitivity analysis framework. We apply our method using the first three rounds of survey data from the Salisbury Eye Evaluation, a population-based cohort study of older adults. We also present a simulation study that validates our method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)526-545
Number of pages20
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2007


  • Causal inference
  • Competing risk
  • Emotional distress
  • Sensitivity analysis
  • Vision loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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