Cardiovascular risk prevalence in South Africans with drug-resistant tuberculosis: A cross-sectional study

E. R. Whitehouse, N. Perrin, N. Levitt, M. Hill, J. E. Farley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: In South Africa, the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are increasing, thereby impacting patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors (diabetes mellitus [DM], smoking, hypertension, increased body mass index [BMI]) and a total risk score for CVD among patients with DR-TB. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within an ongoing cluster-randomized trial in 10 DR-TB hospitals in South Africa. The data for the present study were collected between November 2014 and July 2016. RESULTS: Of 900 participants aged 718 years, 75.1% were co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 52.3% had one or more CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD risk factors was hypertension (16.7%), increased BMI (16.6%), DM (5.2%), and smoking (31.4%). Among patients with DM or hypertension, 58.8-95.5% had additional comorbid CVD risk factors. Of 398 participants eligible for the CVD risk score (age 7 35 years), 23.4% had a moderate or high CVD risk score. CONCLUSION: Patients with multiple diseases, including DR-TB and HIV, with traditional CVD risk factors, may have higher risks for negative outcomes during treatment for DR-TB. TB providers should identify people at risk to initiate primary and secondary prevention to improve outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)587-593
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019


  • Cardiovascular risk score
  • DR-TB
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases


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