PURPOSE: To compare the effects of topical timolol maleate 0.5% and carteolol hydrochloride 1% on pulse rate and blood pressure. METHODS: In a randomized, double-masked, parallel-design, multicenter clinical trial, we compared the effects of timolol and carteolol on pulse rate and blood pressure measured by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 169 adult patients with either ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. RESULTS: From noon to 8 PM, baseline mean pulse rate of 82 to 83 beats per minute (bpm) had decreased by 4 to 6 bpm in both groups after 4 weeks of therapy with timolol or carteolol. From midnight to 4 AM, the pulse rate in the carteolol group was significantly above baseline (P = .005), while the timolol group was significantly below baseline (P < .001). Four times as many patients became bradycardic (heart rate, <60 bpm) on timolol (18.4%) as did patients on carteolol (4.5%) from midnight to 4 AM. More than twice as many patients exhibited a resolution of their bradycardia with carteolol (46.7%) as did patients treated with timolol (18.2%) from midnight to 4 AM. Overall cardiovascular adverse effects were reported significantly more frequently in the timolol than the carteolol group (P = .002).CONCLUSIONS: Timolol causes significantly lower mean heart rate during the nighttime and more nocturnal bradycardia than carteolol does in patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. These differences may be because of the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of carteolol.
ASJC Scopus subject areas