Objective: To synthesize existing epidemiological data on cardiac dysfunction in HIV. Background: Data on the burden and risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection-associated cardiac dysfunction have not been adequately synthesized. We performed meta-analyses of extant literature on the frequency of several subtypes cardiac dysfunction among people living with HIV. Methods: We searched electronic databases and reference lists of review articles and combined the study-specific estimates using random-effects model meta-analyses. Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Results: We included 63 reports from 54 studies comprising up to 125,382 adults with HIV infection and 12,655 cases of various cardiac dysfunctions. The pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 12.3% (6.4% to 19.7%; 26 studies) for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD); 12.0% (7.6% to 17.2%; 17 studies) for dilated cardiomyopathy; 29.3% (22.6% to 36.5%; 20 studies) for grades I to III diastolic dysfunction; and 11.7% (8.5% to 15.3%; 11 studies) for grades II to III diastolic dysfunction. The pooled incidence and prevalence of clinical heart failure were 0.9 per 100 person-years (0.4 to 2.1 per 100 person-years; 4 studies) and 6.5% (4.4% to 9.6%; 8 studies), respectively. The combined prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction were 11.5% (5.5% to 19.2%; 14 studies) and 8.0% (5.2% to 11.2%; 10 studies), respectively. Significant heterogeneity was observed across studies for all the outcomes analyzed (I2 > 70%, p < 0.01), only partly explained by available study level characteristics. There was a trend for lower prevalence of LVSD in studies reporting higher antiretroviral therapy use or lower proportion of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The prevalence of LVSD was higher in the African region. After taking into account the effect of regional variation, there was evidence of lower prevalence of LVSD in studies published more recently. Conclusions: Cardiac dysfunction is frequent in people living with HIV. Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand the burden and risk of various forms of cardiac dysfunction related to HIV and the associated mechanisms.
- cardiac dysfunction
- human immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine