Can TTIP improve laboratory animal welfare in safety testing and 3Rs?

Francois Busquet, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In the context of the current negotiations between the European Union (EU) and the United States under the Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership (TTIP), there is the opportunity to look at both legislative frameworks to better pinpoint convergences, synergies, and gaps when it comes to use of laboratory animals for scientific purposes and bring together the best of both worlds. The objectives in this article are to indicate what are the current EU pieces of legislation that are relevant under TTIP regarding the uses of laboratory animals for scientific purposes under the regulations about cosmetics and chemicals, among others. The same approach will be taken to look at the relevant American legal frameworks, that is, the Food and Cosmetics Act and the Toxic Safety Control Act as well as its most recent reauthorization. In conclusion, the authors will identify future frameworks that can contribute to the harmonization of regulatory standards and further steps where TTIP negotiators should strengthen regulatory cooperation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)358-367
Number of pages10
JournalILAR journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 4 2017


  • Animal testing alternatives
  • Animal welfare
  • European Union
  • Laboratory animals
  • Policy
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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