The accurate diagnosis and staging of hepatic fibrosis is crucial for prognosis and treatment of liver disease. The current gold standard, liver biopsy, cannot be used for population-based screening, and has well known drawbacks if used for monitoring of disease progression or treatment success. Our objective was to assess performance and promise of radiologic modalities and techniques as alternative, noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis. A systematic review was conducted. Six hundred twenty-eight studies were identified via electronic search. One hundred fifty-three papers were reviewed. Most described techniques that could differentiate between cirrhosis or severe fibrosis and normal liver. Accurate staging of fibrosis or diagnosis of mild fibrosis was often not achievable. Ultrasonography is the most common modality used in the diagnosis and staging of hepatic fibrosis. Elastographic measurements, either ultrasonography-based or magnetic resonance-based, and magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging, show the most promise for accurate staging of hepatic fibrosis. Most currently available imaging techniques can detect cirrhosis or significant fibrosis reasonably accurately. However, to date only magnetic resonance elastography has been able to stage fibrosis or diagnose mild disease. Utrasonographic elastography and magnetic resonance diffusion weighted appear next most promising.
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