Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Calcium is an essential mineral. Over 99% of body calcium is in bones and teeth, whereas <1% exists in cells and extracellular fluid, where it functions in cell signalling. Dairy products are major sources of dietary calcium. To preserve bone, calcium intake must be adequate to balance obligate losses in urine, the gastrointestinal tract, and through skin. Calcium homeostasis is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, which increase renal calcium reabsorption, resorption of calcium from bone, and absorption efficiency of dietary calcium when circulating calcium declines. Calcium is important for both skeletal and nonskeletal health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Human Nutrition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9780123848857
ISBN (Print)9780123750839
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012


  • Bone
  • Calcium
  • Calcium balance
  • Dairy
  • Menopause
  • Mineral
  • Osteoporosis
  • Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  • Puberty
  • Resorption
  • Rickets
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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