Bringing fear into focus: The intersections of HIV and masculine gender norms in Côte d’Ivoire

Danielle Amani Naugle, Natalie Jean Tibbels, Zoé Mistrale Hendrickson, Abdul Dosso, Lynn van Lith, Elizabeth C. Mallalieu, Anne Marie Kouadio, Walter Kra, Diarra Kamara, Patricia Dailly-Ajavon, Adama Cissé, Kim Seifert-Ahanda, Sereen Thaddeus, Stella Babalola, Christopher J. Hoffmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This qualitative research study explored the role of masculinity in men’s engagement in the HIV care continuum in Côte d’Ivoire. The researchers conducted 73 in-depth interviews and 28 focus group discussions with 227 Ivoirian men between November and December 2016 across three urban sites. Participants in the study expressed that fear was the primary barrier to HIV testing and treatment. These men described five value domains–health, sexuality, work and financial success, family, and social status. Men saw HIV as a direct threat to their agency and strength with respect to each of these value domains, thus shedding light on their reluctance to discover their HIV status through HIV testing. With this data, the researchers created the Masculine Values Framework, a descriptive framework of masculine values that can be applied to better understand the behavior men exhibit in Côte d’Ivoire in the face of HIV. The Masculine Values Framework offers practical guidance for developing gender-sensitive HIV-focused social and behavior change programming in Côte d’Ivoire and similar contexts to reach the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0223414
JournalPloS one
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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