We compared the prevalence of self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in preschoolers aged 30–68 months with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 691) versus other developmental delays and disorders (DD) (n = 977) accounting for sociodemographic, cognitive, and medical factors. SIB prevalence was higher in ASD versus all DD [adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) 2.13 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.53, 2.97)]. In subgroup analyses, SIB prevalence was higher in ASD versus DD without ASD symptoms [aOR 4.42 (95% CI 2.66, 7.33)], but was similar between ASD and DD with ASD symptoms [aOR 1.09 (95% CI 0.68, 1.77)]. We confirmed higher prevalence of SIB in ASD versus DD, independent of confounders. In children with DD, SIB prevalence increased with more ASD symptoms. These findings are informative to clinicians, researchers, and policymakers.
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Developmental delays and disorders
- Self-injurious behaviors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology