Bridged cyclams as imaging agents for chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)

Lauren E. Woodard, Ravindra A. De Silva, Babak Behnam Azad, Ala Lisok, Mrudula Pullambhatla, Wojciech G. Lesniak, Ronnie C. Mease, Martin G. Pomper, Sridhar Nimmagadda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Over-expression of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is present in a majority of cancers, has been linked to an aggressive phenotype, and may indicate the metastatic potential of primary tumor. Several CXCR4 targeted therapeutics are in clinical trials and the development of the corresponding imaging agents is an area of active interest. Previously, 64Cu-labeled imaging agents for CXCR4 have provided clear images of CXCR4-bearing tissues in relevant experimental models but demonstrated fast washout from tissues harboring receptor. Addition of stabilizing bridges is known to provide more robust chelator-Cu(II) complexes. In addition, bridged cyclam-based CXCR4 binding agents demonstrated increased receptor residence times relative to existing agents. Based on that knowledge we synthesized several bridged cyclam analogs of AMD3465, a monocyclam-based CXCR4 imaging agent, to increase the retention time of the tracer bound to the receptor to allow for protracted imaging and improved target-to-non-target ratios. Specific accumulation of two radiolabeled, cross-bridged analogs ([64Cu] RAD1-24 and [64Cu]RAD1-52) was observed in U87-stb-CXCR4 tumors in both PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies. At 90min post-injection of radiotracer, tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios reached 106.05±17.19 and 28.08±4.78, respectively, for cross-bridged pyrimidine analog [64Cu]RAD1-52. Receptor blockade performed in vivo denoted target binding specificity. The biodistribution and PET/CT imaging studies with the radiolabeled bridged cyclams demonstrated longer tumor retention and comparable uptake to [64Cu]AMD3465, though [64Cu]AMD3465 demonstrated superior overall pharmacokinetics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)552-561
Number of pages10
JournalNuclear Medicine and Biology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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