Breath-hold MR measurements of blood flow velocity in internal mammary arteries and coronary artery bypass grafts

Hajime Sakuma, Sebastian Globits, Margaret O'Sullivan, Ann Shimakawa, Matt A. Bernstein, Thomas K F Foo, Thomas M. Amidon, Kan Takeda, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Charles B. Higgins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Breath-hold velocity-encoded cine MR (VENC-MR) imaging is a feasible method for measuring phasic blood flow velocity in small vessels that move during respiration. The purposes of the current study are to compare breathhold VENC-MR measurements of flow velocities in the internal mammary arteries (IMA) with nonbreath-hold measurements and to characterize the systolic and diastolic flow velocity curves in a cardiac cycle in native IMA and IMA grafts. Flow velocity in 30 native IMA and 8 IMA grafts were evaluated with a breath-hold VENC-MR sequence with K-space segmentation and view-sharing reconstruction(TR/TE = 16/9 msec, VENC = 100 cm/s). In 10 native IMA, nonbreath-hold VENC-MR images were acquired as well for comparison. Breath-hold VENC-MR imaging showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic peak velocities in native IMA (43.1 cm/second ± 15.0 and 10.0 cm/second ± 4.8), in comparison to those of nonbreath-hold VENC-MR imaging (27.6 cm/second ± 10.2 and 7.3 cm/ second ± 3.9, P <.05). The diastolic/systolic peak velocity ratio in the IMA grafts (.88 ± .41) was significantly higher than that in native IMA (.24 ± .08, P <.01). Interobserver variability in the flow velocity measurement was less than 4%. Breath-hold VENC-MR imaging demonstrated higher peak flow velocity in the IMA than nonbreath-hold VENC-MR imaging. This technique is a rapid and effective method for the noninvasive assessment of blood flow velocity in IMA grafts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-222
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Coronary artery bypass graft
  • Coronary flow
  • Internal mammary artery
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Rapid MR imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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