Breath ammonia and ethanol increase in response to a high protein challenge

Lisa A. Spacek, Matthew L. Mudalel, Rafal Lewicki, Frank K. Tittel, Terence H. Risby, Jill Stoltzfus, Joseph J. Munier, Steven F. Solga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Quantifying changes in ammonia and ethanol in blood and body fluid assays in response to food is cumbersome. We used breath analysis of ammonia, ethanol, hydrogen (an accepted standard of gut transit) and acetone to investigate gastrointestinal physiology. In 30 healthy participants, we measured each metabolite serially over 6h in control and high protein trials. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA compared treatment (control versus intervention), change from baseline to maximum and interaction of treatment and time change. Interaction was significant for ammonia (p<0.0001) and hydrogen (p<0.0001). We describe the dynamic measurement of multiple metabolites in response to an oral challenge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-156
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015


  • Acetone
  • Ammonia
  • Breath metabolites
  • Ethanol
  • Gastrointestinal physiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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