BRAINSTORM: A Multi-Institutional Phase 1/2 Study of RRx-001 in Combination With Whole Brain Radiation Therapy for Patients With Brain Metastases

Michelle M. Kim, Hemant A. Parmar, Matthew Schipper, Theresa Devasia, Madhava P. Aryal, Santosh Kesari, Steven O'Day, Aki Morikawa, Daniel E. Spratt, Larry Junck, Aaron Mammoser, James A. Hayman, Theodore S. Lawrence, Christina I. Tsien, Robert Aiken, Sharad Goyal, Nacer Abrouk, Malcolm Trimble, Yue Cao, Christopher D. Lao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: To determine the recommended phase 2 dose of RRx-001, a radiosensitizer with vascular normalizing properties, when used with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for brain metastases and to assess whether quantitative changes in perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after RRx-001 correlate with response. Methods and Materials: Five centers participated in this phase 1/2 trial of RRx-001 given once pre-WBRT and then twice weekly during WBRT. Four dose levels were planned (5 mg/m2, 8.4 mg/m2, 16.5 mg/m2, 27.5 mg/m2). Dose escalation was managed by the time-to-event continual reassessment method algorithm. Linear mixed models were used to correlate change in 24-hour T1, Ktrans (capillary permeability), and fractional plasma volume with change in tumor volume. Results: Between 2015 and 2017, 31 patients were enrolled. Two patients dropped out before any therapy. Median age was 60 years (range, 30-76), and 12 were male. The most common tumor types were melanoma (59%) and non-small cell lung cancer (18%). No dose limiting toxicities were observed. The most common severe adverse event was grade 3 asthenia (6.9%, 2 of 29). The median intracranial response rate was 46% (95% confidence interval, 24-68) and median overall survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval, 4.5-9.4). No neurologic deaths occurred. Among 10 patients undergoing dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, a reduction in Vp 24 hours after RRx-001 was associated with reduced tumor volume at 1 and 4 months (P ≤.01). Conclusions: The addition of RRx-001 to WBRT is well tolerated with favorable intracranial response rates. Because activity was observed across all dose levels, the recommended phase 2 dose is 10 mg twice weekly. A reduction in fractional plasma volume on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 24 hours after RRx-001 suggests antiangiogenic activity associated with longer-term tumor response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)478-486
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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