Bladder exstrophy from childhood into adult life

Jacob Ben-Chaim, Steven G. Docimo, Robert D. Jeffs, John P. Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Exstrophy of the bladder is rare and the incidence of bladder exstrophy is calculated to be from 1 per 30 000 to 50 000 live births with male to female ratio ranging from 1.5-5 to 1. It was found that persistence or overgrowth of the cloacal membrane on the lower anterior abdominal area, prevents normal mesenchymal ingrowth. This causes divergence of the lower abdominal muscular structures and forces the genital ridges to fuse caudal to the cloacal membrane. The stage of ingrowth of the urorectal septum at the time of rupture determines whether one will produce an exstrophic urinary tract alone (classic bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or cloacal exstrophy with the hindgut interposed between the hemibladders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39P-46P
JournalJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1996


  • Augmentation
  • Bladder exstrophy
  • Continence
  • Sexual function
  • Urinary diversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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