Bipolar suction electrodes for pharyngeal electromyography

Eiichi Tanaka, Jeffrey Palmer, Arthur Siebens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


We have developed bipolar suction electrodes (BSEs) for surface electromyography (EMG) of the pharynx and esophagus. Construction techniques are described, and procedures for recording from the upper esophagus, cricopharyngeus, and pharyngeal constrictors are explained. Sample EMG recordings are presented. Advantages of this new technique, including simple verification of placement, analysis by surface recording, and minimal pain, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-40
Number of pages2
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1986


  • Cricopharyngeus
  • Electromyography
  • Esophagus
  • Pharynx
  • Swallowing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Speech and Hearing


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