Biological sex impacts COVID-19 outcomes

Sabra L. Klein, Santosh Dhakal, Rebecca L. Ursin, Sharvari Deshpande, Kathryn Sandberg, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


The current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is revealing profound differences between men and women in disease outcomes worldwide. In the United States, there has been inconsistent reporting and analyses of male-female differences in COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. We seek to raise awareness about the male-biased severe outcomes from COVID-19, highlighting the mechanistic differences including in the expression and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as well as in antiviral immunity. We also highlight how sex differences in comorbidities, which can be associated with both age and race, impact male-biased outcomes from COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1008570
JournalPLoS pathogens
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Virology


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