Biofeedback in treatment of urinary incontinence in stroke patients

Susan J. Middaugh, William E. Whitehead, Kathryn L. Burgio, Bernard T. Engel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Urinary incontinence can occur poststroke owing to weakness or incoordination of sphincter muscles, impaired bladder sensation, or hyperreflexic, neurogenic bladder. Four male subjects who had urinary incontinence associated with a stroke that had occurred 8 months to 10 years earlier, and who averaged 1.6 to 7.5 accidental voidings per week, participated in an outpatient study with a 4-week scheduled-voiding baseline, 2 to 5 sessions of biofeedback-assisted bladder retraining, and 6- to 12-month follow-up. Training sessions included stepwise filling of the bladder and manometric feedback display of bladder pressure, abdominal pressure, and external anal sphincter pressure. Training procedures were designed to teach subjects to attend to bladder sensations, inhibit bladder contractions, and improve voluntary sphincter muscle control. All four subjects achieved and maintained continence regardless of substantial differences in subject characteristics, including laterality of stroke, degree of sensory impairment, and independence in daily activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-19
Number of pages17
JournalBiofeedback and Self-Regulation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 1989


  • biofeedback
  • rehabilitation manometric feedback
  • stroke
  • urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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