Bedquiline Resistance Mutations: Correlations with Drug Exposures and Impact on the Proteome in M. tuberculosis

Jian Xu, Dongshuo Li, Jinghua Shi, Bin Wang, Fei Ge, Zhenyong Guo, Xiaopan Mu, Eric Nuermberger, Yu Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bedaquiline (BDQ) is an effective drug for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Mutations in atpE, which encodes the target of BDQ, are associated with large increases in MICs. Mutations in Rv0678 that derepress the transcription of the MmpL5-MmpS5 efflux transporter are associated with smaller increases in MICs. However, Rv0678 mutations are the most common mutations that are associated with BDQ resistance in clinical isolates, and they also confer cross-resistance to clofazimine (CFZ). To investigate the mechanism of BDQ resistance and the correlation between Rv0678 mutations and target-based atpE mutations, M. tuberculosis strains were exposed to different concentrations of BDQ or CFZ to select Rv0678 mutations and atpE mutations. Gene overexpression strains were constructed to illustrate the roles of MmpL5 and MmpS5. A quantitative proteome analysis was performed to compare the BDQ-resistant mutants to the isogenic strain H37Rv. Here, we report that the Rv0678 mutations were more readily selected than were the atpE mutations at low concentrations of BDQ or CFZ. The atpE mutations were selected by high concentrations of BDQ exposure. The overexpression of both mmpL5 and mmpS5 reduced the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to BDQ and CFZ. Secreted immunogenic proteins and proteins involved in the biosynthesis and transport of phthiocerol dimycocerosates were associated with Rv0678 mutations conferring BDQ resistance in the proteome analysis. In conclusion, exposure to different bedaquiline concentrations resulted in the selection of different mutations. The coexpression of MmpL5 and MmpS5 contributed to drug resistance and upregulated pathogenic proteins in M. tuberculosis, suggesting MmpL5-MmpS5 as a new potential target for antituberculosis drug development. These results warrant further surveillance for the evolution of BDQ resistance during clinical usage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Rv0678
  • atpE
  • bedaquiline
  • exposure
  • proteome
  • resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology


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