Baseline duty hours recorded with time-cards: A pre-regulation study of internal medicine residents

Larry W. Chang, Arpana R. Vidyarthi, R. Jeffrey Kohlwes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective: The acquisition of data on resident duty hours has been largely dependent on self-report surveys collected in the surgical literature. We sought to implement and describe a simple method for monitoring internal medicine resident duty hours by using time-cards. Design: In 2002, internal medicine residents on a 3-site academic programme were asked to track their duty hours using time-cards prior to the implementation of system changes according to duty hours reform. Setting: An academic internal medicine residency programme in the USA. Results: Of participating residents (n = 41), 93% worked at least 1 shift longer than 30 hours, 29% worked an average of more than 80 hours per week, and 56% had less than 1 day off per week. No residents were on call more than once every third day. Conclusions: This study describes the findings and challenges of using time-cards to track duty hours, and shows that many internal medicine residents on this programme were, before implementation of duty hours reforms, in violation of duty hours regulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)662-666
Number of pages5
JournalMedical education
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Curriculum
  • Education, medical, graduate/*organisation & administration
  • Hospital records
  • Internship and residence/*organisation & administration
  • Personnel administration, hospital
  • Time factors
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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