The E46K is a point mutation in α-synuclein (α-syn) that causes familial Parkinsonism with Lewy body dementia. We have now generated a cell model of Parkinsonism/Parkinson's disease (PD) and demonstrated cell toxicity after expression of E46K in the differentiated PC12 cells. E46K α-syn inhibited proteasome activity and induced mitochondrial depolarization in the cell model. Baicalein has been reported to inhibit fibrillation of wild type α-syn in vitro, and to protect neurons against several chemical-induced models of PD. We now report that baicalein significantly attenuated E46K-induced mitochondrial depolarization and proteasome inhibition, and protected cells against E46K-induced toxicity in a cell model of PD. Baicalein also reduced E46K fibrilization in vitro, with a concentration-dependent decrease in beta sheet conformation, though it increased some oligomeric species, and decreased formation of E46K α-syn-induced aggregates and rescued toxicity in N2A cells. Taken together, these data indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasome inhibition and specific aspects of abnormal E46K aggregation accompany E46K α-syn-induced cell toxicity, and baicalein can protect as well as altering aggregation properties. Baicalein has potential as a tool to understand the relation between different aggregation species and toxicity, and might be a candidate compound for further validation by using in vivoα-syn genetic PD models.
- Parkinson's disease
- mitochondria depolarization
- proteasome inhibition
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience