Associations of depression status and hopelessness with blood pressure: a 24-year follow-up study

Sarah J. Roane, Patrick Pössel, Amanda M. Mitchell, William W. Eaton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Hypertension is estimated to cause 12.8% of all deaths worldwide. Both literature and well-supported cognitive models indicate that hopelessness predicts depressive symptoms. This study aimed to test whether high levels of hopelessness are associated with increased blood pressure, as well as whether depression acts as a mediator between hopelessness and blood pressure. Data from the original 24-year longitudinal Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) were analyzed via linear regression (N = 917; 60.3% female; 62.9% European American; mean age = 42.96 years, SD = 16.94). Hopelessness was found to have a significant direct relationship with systolic blood pressure (SBP, p <.05), but not with diastolic blood pressure (DBP, p >.05); while depression had no significant direct relationship with SBP or with DBP. Overall, findings indicated that hopelessness has a significant relationship with SBP. Limitations and implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)761-771
Number of pages11
JournalPsychology, Health and Medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 9 2017


  • Depression
  • diastolic blood pressure
  • hopelessness
  • hypertension
  • systolic blood pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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