Associations between HIV antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda

Fredrick E. Makumbi, Gertrude Nakigozi, Steven J. Reynolds, Anthony Ndyanabo, Tom Lutalo, David Serwada, Fred Nalugoda, Maria Wawer, Ron Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Background. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with higher pregnancy rates. Methods. The prevalence and incidence of pregnancy was assessed in 712 HIV+ pre-ART women of reproductive age (WRA) (15-45) and 244 HIV+ WRA initiating ART. Prevalence rate ratios (PRR), incidence rate ratios (IRR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed. Results. The incidence of pregnancy was 13.1/100 py among women in pre-ART care compared to 24.6/100 py among women on ART (IRR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.37, 0.81, p<0.0017). The prevalence of pregnancy at ART initiation was 12.0% with CD4 counts 100-250 compared with 3.2% with CD4 <100 (PRR = 3.24, CI 1.51-6.93), and the incidence of pregnancy while on ART was highest in women with a good immunologic response. Desire for more children was a very important factor in fertility. Conclusion. ART was associated with increased pregnancy rates in HIV+ women, particularly those with higher CD4 counts and good immunologic response to therapy, suggesting a need to strengthen reproductive health services for both women and their partners that could address their fertility decisions/intentions particularly after ART initiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number519492
JournalAIDS Research and Treatment
StatePublished - 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Dermatology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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