Association of football subconcussive head impacts with ocular near point of convergence

Keisuke Kawata, Leah H. Rubin, Jong Hyun Lee, Thomas Sim, Masahiro Takahagi, Victor Szwanki, Al Bellamy, Kurosh Darvish, Soroush Assari, Jeffrey D. Henderer, Ryan Tierney, Dianne Langford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


IMPORTANCE An increased understanding of the relationship between subconcussive head impacts and near point of convergence (NPC) ocular-motor function may be useful in delineating traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether repetitive subconcussive head impacts during preseason football practice cause changes in NPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective, observational study of 29 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players included baseline and preseason practices (1 noncontact and 4 contact), and postseason follow-up and outcome measures were obtained for each time. An accelerometer-embedded mouthguard measured head impact kinematics. Based on the sum of head impacts from all 5 practices, players were categorized into lower (n = 7) or higher (n = 22) impact groups. EXPOSURES Players participated in regular practices, and all head impacts greater than 10g from the 5 practices were recorded using the i1Biometerics Vector mouthguard (i1 Biometrics Inc). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Near point of convergence measures and symptom scores. RESULTS A total of 1193 head impacts were recorded from 5 training camp practices in the 29 collegiate football players; 22 were categorized into the higher-impact group and 7 into the lower-impact group. Therewere significant differences in head impact kinematics between lower- and higher-impact groups (number of impacts, 6 vs 41 [lower impact minus higher impact = 35; 95%CI, 21-51; P < .001]; linear acceleration, 99g vs 1112g [lower impact minus higher impact= 1013; 95%CI, 621 - 1578; P < .001]; angular acceleration, 7589 radian/s 2 vs 65016 radian/s 2 [lower impact minus higher impact= 57 427; 95%CI , 31 123-80 498; P < .001], respectively). The trajectory and cumulative burden of subconcussive impacts on NPC differed by group (F for group × linear trend 1, 238 = 12.14, P < .001 and F for group × quadratic trend 1,238 , = 12.97, P < .001). In the higher-impact group, therewas a linear increase in NPC over time (B for linear trend, unstandardized coefficient [SE]: 0.76 [0.12], P < .001) that plateaued and resolved by postseason follow-up (B for quadratic trend [SE]: -0.06 [0.008], P < .001). In the lower-impact group, therewas no change in NPC over time. Group differenceswere first observed after the first contact practice and remained until the final full-gear practice. No group differenceswere observed postseason follow-up. Therewere no differences in symptom scores between groups over time. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although asymptomatic, these data suggest that repetitive subconcussive head impacts were associated with changes in NPC. The increase in NPC highlights the vulnerability and slow recovery of the ocular-motor system following subconcussive head impacts. Changes in NPC may become a useful clinical tool in deciphering brain injury severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)763-769
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA ophthalmology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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