Association of Androgen Hormones, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and the Menopausal Transition With Incident Diabetes Mellitus in Women With and Without HIV

Rebecca A. Abelman, Michael F. Schneider, Christopher Cox, Geralyn Messerlian, Mardge Cohen, Deborah Gustafson, Michael Plankey, Anjali Sharma, Jennifer Price, Carl Grunfeld, Phyllis C. Tien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background:HIV is associated with alterations in androgen hormone levels and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in women. Higher SHBG has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes in the general population, but the contribution of HIV, androgen hormones, SHBG, and menopausal phase to diabetes is unclear.Methods:From April 2003 through February 2020, 896 women with HIV (WWH) and 343 women without HIV (WWOH) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study with morning total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and SHBG levels were followed to assess for incident diabetes. Parametric regression models were used with age as the time scale and relative times (RT) as the measure of association of hormone level and menopausal phase with incident diabetes. Analyses incorporated time-dependent androgen hormone, SHBG levels, and menopausal phase and were adjusted for race/ethnicity, enrollment year, smoking status, BMI, hepatitis C virus status, and HIV-related factors.Results:In total, 128 (14%) WWH and 47 (14%) WWOH developed diabetes. In WWH, a doubling of SHBG and DHEAS were associated with a 7% (RT = 1.07 [95% CI: 0.82 to 1.40] and 15% (RT = 1.15 [95% CI: 0.95 to 1.39]) longer time to diabetes, respectively; in WWOH, a doubling of SHBG and DHEAS were associated with 84% (RT = 1.84 [95% CI: 0.89 to 3.82]) and 41% (RT= 1.41 [95% CI: 0.82 to 2.44]) longer times to diabetes. Total testosterone was not associated. In WWH, later menopausal phase was associated with shorter times to diabetes.Conclusions:Despite alterations in androgen hormone and SHBG levels in HIV, regardless of HIV status, higher SHBG and DHEAS were associated with nonstatistically significant slower progression to diabetes. The menopausal transition may be a better hormonal indicator of diabetes risk in WWH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)486-493
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume95
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2024

Keywords

  • HIV
  • diabetes
  • menopause
  • sex steroids
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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