Association Between Gut Hormones and Weight Change After Bariatric Arterial Embolization: Results from the BEAT Obesity Trial

Muhammad A. Latif, Jessa M. Tunacao, Yingli Fu, Timothy H. Moran, Gayane Yenokyan, Aaron M. Fischman, Lawrence J. Cheskin, Brian P. Holly, Kelvin Hong, Eun J. Shin, Kimberley E. Steele, Dara L. Kraitchman, Aravind Arepally, Clifford R. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To evaluate associations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY 3–36 (PYY3-36) with weight change after bariatric arterial embolization (BAE). Materials and Methods: Subgroup analysis of data collected during the BEAT Obesity Trial involving 7 participants with BMI > 40 who were embolized with 300- to 500-μm Embosphere Microspheres. Three participants were characterized as “responders” (top tertile of weight loss at each visit) and 4 as “non-responders” (bottom tertile of weight loss at each visit). Mean ± standard deviation participant age was 44 ± 11 years, and 6 of 7 participants were women. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after BAE. After fasting, participants consumed a mixed meal test at each visit; blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min. Study outcome measures were changes in weight from baseline and plasma serum hormone levels. Results: Percentage change in ghrelin decreased significantly in non-responders at 60 and 120 min at 1 and 12 months (estimated difference between 60 vs. 0 min at 1 month: 69% [95% CI − 126%, − 13%]; estimated difference between 120 vs. 0 min at 12 months: − 131% (95% CI − 239%, − 23%]). Responders had significantly lower ghrelin and greater weight loss than non-responders at 6 and 12 months. GLP-1 and PYY3-36 levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Participants with consistent weight loss throughout follow-up had lower ghrelin than non-responders, supporting decreased ghrelin as a mechanism underlying BAE-induced weight loss. Level of Evidence I: High-quality randomized trial or prospective study; testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients; sensible costs and alternatives; values obtained from many studies with multiway sensitivity analyses; systematic review of Level I RCTs and Level I studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-228
Number of pages9
JournalCardiovascular and interventional radiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Bariatric
  • Embolization
  • Ghrelin
  • Gut hormones
  • Left gastric artery
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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