Association between annual earnings and mental disorders in Spain: Individual and societal-level estimates

Gabriela Barbaglia, Gemma Vilagut, Lucía Artazcoz, Josep Maria Haro, Montserrat Ferrer, Carlos García Forero, Jordi Alonso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose Indirect costs of mental disorders are considerable and include loss of work productivity. We aimed to study the association between personal annual earnings and common mental disorders in Spain. Methods A cross-sectional population study of a representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults from Spain was performed (ESEMeD-Spain). CIDI 3.0 was administered to assess DSM IV mental disorders, and the Sheehan Disability Scales were used for severity appraisal. Four categories of mental disorders were defined: 12-month serious, 12-month moderate, 12-month mild, and lifetime. Personal annual earnings were assessed. Three models were fitted to estimate differences in annual earnings associated with mental disorders, controlling for sociodemographic variables. Results Prevalence rates of 12-month mental disorders were: mild 4.6%, moderate 3.8%, and serious 1.6%. Respondents with 12-month serious mental disorder (SMD) were less likely to report any earnings compared to those with no mental disorders (OR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.07-0.34, p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1717-1725
Number of pages9
JournalSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Earnings
  • Indirect costs
  • Mental disorders
  • Spain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Epidemiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology


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