Assessment of Panfacial Fractures in the Pediatric Population

Margaret M. Dalena, Farrah C. Liu, Jordan N. Halsey, Edward S. Lee, Mark S. Granick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Management of panfacial fractures is critical and often difficult in adults; however, there is little to no literature regarding these fractures in the pediatric population. In this study, we present our experience to provide insight and further investigation regarding prevention and management strategies within the pediatric population. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all panfacial fractures in the pediatric population between 2002 and 2014 treated at an urban, level 1 trauma center (University Hospital, Newark, NJ). Data including patient demographic characteristics, mechanisms of injury, locations of fractures, concomitant injuries, and surgical management strategies were collected. Results: We identified 82 patients aged 18 years or younger who had sustained a panfacial fracture. The mean age at the time of injury was 12.9 years, with a male predominance of 64.9%. A total of 335 fractures were identified on radiologic imaging. The most common etiologies were motor vehicle accidents and pedestrians being struck. Orbital, frontal sinus, nasal, and zygoma fractures were the most common fractures. The mean score on the Glasgow Coma Scale on arrival was 12.0. A total of 29 patients were intubated on arrival—or before arrival—at the trauma bay. A surgical airway was required in 9 patients. The most common concomitant injuries were traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and skull fracture. Surgical repair was required in 38 patients. The cephalic-to-caudal approach was used most, followed by caudal to cephalic, medial to lateral, and lateral to medial. Within a year of the initial surgical procedure, 4 patients underwent reoperations for complications. Four patients died. Conclusions: Pediatric panfacial fractures are rare occurrences; however, the impact of these injuries can be devastating, with concomitant life-threatening injuries and complications. Given the lack of literature, as well as the preventable nature of these injuries, we hope this study can address primary prevention strategies and provide insight toward the management and characteristics of these fractures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1156-1161
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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