Assessing the criterion validity of four highly abbreviated measures from the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS)

Elizabeth S. Gromisch, Vance Zemon, Roee Holtzer, Nancy D. Chiaravalloti, John DeLuca, Meghan Beier, Eileen Farrell, Stacey Snyder, Laura C. Schairer, Lisa Glukhovsky, Jason Botvinick, Jessica Sloan, Mary Ann Picone, Sonya Kim, Frederick W. Foley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objective: Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in multiple sclerosis. As self-reported cognitive functioning is unreliable, brief objective screening measures are needed. Utilizing widely used full-length neuropsychological tests, this study aimed to establish the criterion validity of highly abbreviated versions of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test – Revised (BVMT-R), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Sorting Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) in order to begin developing an MS-specific screening battery. Method: Participants from Holy Name Medical Center and the Kessler Foundation were administered one or more of these four measures. Using test-specific criterion to identify impairment at both −1.5 and −2.0 SD, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of BVMT-R Trial 1, Trial 2, and Trial 1 + 2 raw data (N = 286) were run to calculate the classification accuracy of the abbreviated version, as well as the sensitivity and specificity. The same methods were used for SDMT 30-s and 60-s (N = 321), D-KEFS Sorting Free Card Sort 1 (N = 120), and COWAT letters F and A (N = 298). Results: Using these definitions of impairment, each analysis yielded high classification accuracy (89.3 to 94.3%). Conclusions: BVMT-R Trial 1, SDMT 30-s, D-KEFS Free Card Sort 1, and COWAT F possess good criterion validity in detecting impairment on their respective overall measure, capturing much of the same information as the full version. Along with the first two trials of the California Verbal Learning Test – Second Edition (CVLT-II), these five highly abbreviated measures may be used to develop a brief screening battery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1032-1049
Number of pages18
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2 2016


  • MS
  • cognition
  • executive function
  • memory
  • neuropsychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessing the criterion validity of four highly abbreviated measures from the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this