Assessing reproductive choices of women and the likelihood of oocyte cryopreservation in the era of elective oocyte freezing

Lauren W. Milman, Suneeta Senapati, Mary D. Sammel, Katherine D. Cameron, Clarisa Gracia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Objective To assess reproductive choices of reproductive-age women in the United States and factors that influence consideration of elective egg freezing (EF). Design Cross-sectional internet-based survey. Setting Not applicable. Patients One thousand women aged 21–45 years. Intervention(s) An anonymous 63-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a representative cross-section of women aged 21–45 years, stratified by age <35 years. One-half of the sample had at least one child, and the other one-half did not. All of the participants were interested in having children. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ordinal logistic regression was performed to characterize the association of population characteristics and reproductive knowledge with likelihood to consider EF. Willingness to pay was assessed with the use of a linear prediction model that calculated dollar amounts at varying success rates. Result(s) Overall, 87.2% of the sample reported awareness of EF for fertility preservation and 25% would consider this option, yet only 29.8% knew what the EF process entails. Once informed of the process, 30% of women changed their level of consideration. In a multivariable model, Asian race, single status, and infertility increased the likelihood of considering EF. Women likely to consider egg freezing would be willing to pay $3,811.55 (95% confidence interval $2,862.66–$4,760.44). If the total cost were $10,000, 91% of the cohort would accept at minimum a 50% chance of successful delivery. Conclusion(s) This study is one of the largest cohorts of reproductive-age women in the United States addressing reproductive choices and factors associated with the importance of having a biologically related child and the likelihood of considering EF to preserve fertility. This study provides important insight into the willingness to pay for this elective endeavor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1214-1222.e3
JournalFertility and sterility
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Oocyte cryopreservation
  • elective egg freezing
  • fertility preservation
  • willingness to pay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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