Assessing immunologic risk factors in transplantation

Mary Carmelle Philogene, Andrea A. Zachary

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The innate and adaptive immune systems, together, represent the largest impediment to good and long-lasting graft function. Although improved immunosuppressive agents and expanded and enhanced diagnostic tools have led to better prevention and treatment of acute rejection, chronic rejection remains a serious threat to long-term graft survival. Immunologic heterogeneity among patients, variability in treatment protocols and unforeseen events following transplantation translate into different levels of risk among patients. While one cannot predict with certainty the short-and long-term outcomes of a particular transplant, it is possible to identify immunologic risk factors that can affect outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)773-779
Number of pages7
JournalExpert review of clinical immunology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • DSA
  • anamnestic response
  • antibody-mediated rejection
  • chronic rejection
  • graft survival
  • noninherited maternal antigen proinflammatory cytokines
  • risk assessment
  • sensitization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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