Artificial intelligence-based clinical decision support for liver transplant evaluation and considerations about fairness: A qualitative study

Alexandra T. Strauss, Carolyn N. Sidoti, Hannah C. Sung, Vedant S. Jain, Harold Lehmann, Tanjala S. Purnell, John W. Jackson, Daniel Malinsky, James P. Hamilton, Jacqueline Garonzik, Stephen H. Gray, Macey L. Levan, Jeremiah S. Hinson, Ayse P. Gurses, Ahmet Gurakar, Dorry L. Segev, Scott Levin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The use of large-scale data and artificial intelligence (AI) to support complex transplantation decisions is in its infancy. Transplant candidate decision-making, which relies heavily on subjective assessment (ie, high variability), provides a ripe opportunity for AI-based clinical decision support (CDS). However, AI-CDS for transplant applications must consider important concerns regarding fairness (ie, health equity). The objective of this study was to use human-centered design methods to elicit providers’ perceptions of AI-CDS for liver transplant listing decisions. Methods: In this multicenter qualitative study conducted from December 2020 to July 2021, we performed semistructured interviews with 53 multidisciplinary liver transplant providers from 2 transplant centers. We used inductive coding and constant comparison analysis of interview data. Results: Analysis yielded 6 themes important for the design of fair AI-CDS for liver transplant listing decisions: (1) transparency in the creators behind the AI-CDS and their motivations; (2) understanding how the AI-CDS uses data to support recommendations (ie, interpretability); (3) acknowledgment that AI-CDS could mitigate emotions and biases; (4) AI-CDS as a member of the transplant team, not a replacement; (5) identifying patient resource needs; and (6) including the patient’s role in the AI-CDS. Conclusions: Overall, providers interviewed were cautiously optimistic about the potential for AI-CDS to improve clinical and equitable outcomes for patients. These findings can guide multidisciplinary developers in the design and implementation of AI-CDS that deliberately considers health equity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0239
JournalHepatology Communications
Volume7
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

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