Apolipoprotein L1, income and early kidney damage

Ruth Tamrat, Carmen A. Peralta, Salman M. Tajuddin, Michele K. Evans, Alan B. Zonderman, Deidra C. Crews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: The degree to which genetic or environmental factors are associated with early kidney damage among African Americans (AAs) is unknown. Methods: Among 462 AAs in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, we examined the cross-sectional association between apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants and income with: 1) mildly reduced eGFR (<75 mL/min/1.73 m2, creatinine-cystatin C equation) and 2) elevated urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (≥17 in men and ≥25 mg/g in women). High risk APOL1 status was defined by 2 copies of high-risk variants; low risk if 0 or 1 copy. Income groups were dichotomized as∈<∈14,000/year (lowest income group) or∈≥isin;14,000/year. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, and % European ancestry. Results: Overall, participants' mean age was 47 years and 16% (n∈=∈73) had high risk APOL1 status. Mean eGFR was 99 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mildly reduced eGFR was prevalent among 11% (n∈=∈51). The lowest income group had higher adjusted odds (aOR) of mildly reduced eGFR than the higher income group (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7). High-risk APOL1 was not significantly associated with reduced eGFR (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.5). Among 301 participants with ACR data, 7% (n∈=∈21) had elevated ACR. Compared to low-risk, persons with high-risk APOL1 had higher odds of elevated ACR (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 2.0-7.3). Income was not significantly associated with elevated ACR (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 0.7-4.5). There were no significant interactions between APOL1 and income. Conclusions: Both genetic and socioeconomic factors may be important determinants of early kidney damage among AAs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number14
JournalBMC nephrology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015


  • APOL1
  • African American
  • Albuminuria
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Renal
  • Socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


Dive into the research topics of 'Apolipoprotein L1, income and early kidney damage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this