Antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy using a GM-CSF secreting allogeneic tumor cell-based vaccine

Edwin Y. Chang, Chien Hung Chen, Hongxiu Ji, Tian Li Wang, Kenneth Hung, Bruce P. Lee, Alex Y.C. Huang, Robert J. Kurman, Drew M. Pardoll, T. C. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-transduced autologous tumor cell-based vaccines are currently one of the major forms of cancer vaccines. However, the preparation of GM-CSF-transduced autologous tumor vaccines is time-consuming and technically challenging. In addition, the host antigen presenting cells, rather than the tumor vaccine cells themselves, present tumor-specific antigens and prime the host T cells. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of antigen-specific allogeneic tumor vaccines. We used human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) E7 protein as a model tumor antigen, which is associated with the development of most cervical carcinoma. B16, a CS7BL/6 (H-2b) derived melanoma cell line, was genetically engineered to produce GM-CSF alone (B16GM), HPV-16 E7 alone (B16E7), or both (B16GME7). These vaccine cells were injected into BALB/c (H-2(d)) mice (106 cells/mouse). Two weeks later, mice were challenged with 105 live HPV-16 E7+ BL-1 (H-2(d)) tumor cells and monitored for tumor progression twice weekly. To determine the effective cell population in the antitumor immunity elicited by B16GME7, we carried out in vivo antibody depletion experiments using CD4 and CD8 specific antibodies. In addition, as a measure of the immune responses produced by B16GME7, we performed an in vitro cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay using a standard chromium release method. We found that all of the mice vaccinated with B16GME7 remained tumor free 49 days post-BL-1 challenge. In contrast, mice vaccinated with B16GM and B16E7 did not show any tumor protection against a similar dose of BL-1 cells. Furthermore, the antitumor immunity produced by B16GME7 was dependent on both CD4 and CD8 T cells. In addition, E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity could be readily demonstrated in mice immunized with B16GME7. These results suggest that allogeneic tumor cells transduced with GM-CSF and the tumor antigen, HPV-16 E7, cannot only generate an E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes response in vitro, but can also elicit a potent antitumor immune response against an E7 expressing tumor in vivo. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)725-730
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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