Anthrax in America 2001-2003

Shivang G. Joshi, Holly Berkovits Cymet, Gary Kerkvliet, Tyler Cymet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis in humans is rare. Two recent outbreaks that were intentionally caused occurred among postal employees, politicians, and journalists in the United States. This has caused tremendous fear, and our experience with these "anthrax incidents" has changed our views on the natural history of this disease in people. In this paper, we review the lifecycle and biology of this micro-organism. Anthrax that occurs from a weaponized form of this micro-organism has a specific clinical presentation that requires a suspicion of anthrax exposure to be diagnosed. New methods of testing for anthrax have been developed and may simplify diagnosis in the future. The range of illness caused by B. anthracis from the molecular level to the clinical symptoms is discussed. We also review the diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis as well as treatment of this condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)344-350
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the National Medical Association
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Anthrax
  • Anthrax vaccine
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Biological terrorism
  • Cutaneous anthrax
  • Inhalational anthrax

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Anthrax in America 2001-2003'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this