Annual summary of vital statistics-1994

B. Guyer, D. M. Strobino, S. J. Ventura, G. K. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Recent trends in the vital statistics of the United States continued in 1994, including decreases in the number of births, the birth rate, the age- adjusted death rate, and the infant mortality rate. Life expectancy increased slightly to 75.7 years. Only marriages reversed the recent trend with a slight increase in 1994. An estimated 3 979 000 infants were born during 1994, a decline of <1% from 1993. The birth rate was 15.3 live births per 1000 population, a 1% decline. These decreasing rates reflect a decline in the fertility rate to 67.1 live births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. Final figures for 1993 indicate that fertility rates declined for all racial groups, by 1% for white women (to 65.4) and 3% for black women (to 80.5). The fertility rate for Hispanic women (106.9) was 84% higher than that for non- Hispanic white women and 31% higher than for non-Hispanic black women. Between 1991 and 1993, birth rates for teenage mothers remained virtually unchanged, and abortion rates have steadily declined, suggesting that teenage pregnancy rates are levelling off. The number and proportion of births to women over age 30, however, continued to rise. The rate of births to all unmarried women (45.3 per 1000 in 1993) has been stable for 3 years. Prenatal care utilization improved in 1993; 79% of women initiated care in the first trimester and <5% had delayed care or no care. Improvements occurred among nearly all racial and ethnic groups. Reported smoking during pregnancy declined to 15.8% in 1993 from 16.9% in 1992. The proportion of babies delivered by cesarean section was 21.8% in 1993, a 2% decrease from 1992. Between 1992 and 1993, the rate of low birth weight (LBW) rose slightly to 7.2%, while very low birth weight (VLBW) remained stable at 1.3%. Most of the increase in LBW occurred among white infants and reflected, primarily, an increase in the proportion of multiple births. The black/white ratio in LBW continued to increase to more than two-fold with the largest difference recorded among term and postterm infants. Age-adjusted death rates in 1994 were lower for heart disease, malignant neoplasm, pulmonary diseases, other accidents, and homicides. The age-adjusted death rate for human immunodeficiency virus disease continued to rise to 15.1 in 1994. The infant mortality rate declined 4% in 1994, to 7.9 per 1000, the lowest rate ever recorded in the United States. The decline was primarily in neonatal mortality. Among the states, Massachusetts (5.4) and Washington (5.7) had the lowest rates. The overall national trend appears to be related to declines in respiratory distress and sudden infant death syndrome deaths. Over the next 25 years, the number of children in the United States is expected to rise by only 10 million, and the composition of the child population will become more ethnically and racially diverse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1029-1039
Number of pages11
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995


  • birth
  • birth weight
  • child population
  • death
  • infant mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Annual summary of vital statistics-1994'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this