Animals and alternatives: Societal expectations and scientific need

Alan M. Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


As Russell and Burch suggested more than 40 years ago, the most humane science is the best science. The path ahead is clear: pain and distress must be eliminated in animal experiments or reduced to an absolute minimum, and, as scientists, we must use the most humane approaches in our research. To accomplish the best science, we must train those who come after us in the principles and practice of humane science.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)545-551
Number of pages7
JournalATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2004


  • Five Freedoms
  • Humane science
  • Reduction
  • Refinement
  • Replacement
  • Training
  • US Animal Welfare Act

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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