Animal models of kidney stone formation: An analysis

S. R. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


Calcifié kidney stones in both humans and mildly hyperoxaluric rats are located on renal papillary surfaces and consist of an organic matrix and crystals of calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate. The matrix is intimately associated with the crystals and contains substances that can promote as well as inhibit calcification. Osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, bikunin, and prothrombin fragment 1 have been identified in matrices of both human and rat stones. Hyperoxaluria can provoke calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in both humans and rats. Kidney-stone-forming rats are hypomagnesuric and hypocitraturic during nephrolithiasis. Human stone formers may have the same disorders. Males of both species are prone to develop calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, whereas females tend to form calcium phosphate stones. Oxalate metabolism is considered to be almost identical between rats and humans. Thus, there are many similarities between experimental nephrolithiasis induced in rats and human kidney-stone formation, and a rat model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis can be used to investigate the mechanisms involved in human kidney stone formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)236-243
Number of pages8
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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