Animal models for breast cancer

Saraswati Sukumar, Katherine McKenzie, Ying Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Rodent mammary tumors induced by chemical carcinogens have proven to be very useful in the genetic analysis of initiation, promotion and progression of mammary carcinogenesis. We are studying rat mammary carcinomas induced by the chemical carcinogen, N-nitroso-N-methylurea. The earliest genetic event observed in the mammary gland is the activation of Ha-ras oncogenes, which is followed by promotion of the initiated cells by hormones involved in puberty. Preferential amplification of the mutated Ha-ras allele, of PRAD-1 and IGF2, loss of expression of the mitogenic growth factor gene, MK, and mutation in the tumor suppressor gene, p53, are seen in the mammary tumors during tumor progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-44
Number of pages8
JournalMutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Dec 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Animal model
  • Breast cancer
  • N-Nitrosa-N-methylurea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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