The optical properties of the eye make the ocular fundus the only location in the human body where direct noninvasive monitoring of vascular flow is possible. During fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV), a rapid sequence of serial photographs taken after the intravenous administration of fluorescein or indocyanine green (ICG) is used to visualize and document choroidal and retinal blood flow. Other than blood flow, FA and ICGV provide information about the integrity of the blood-retinal barriers and the fine details of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and provide a glimpse of associated systemic pathology. Although both technologies reveal important and different aspects of retinal and choroidal diseases, some phases of various diseases are best seen with FA and other aspects are best revealed with ICGV.
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