Anatomy of Classic Bladder Exstrophy: MRI Findings and Surgical Correlation

Emily A. Dunn, Matthew Kasprenski, James Facciola, Karl Benz, Mahir Maruf, Mohammad H. Zaman, John Gearhart, Heather Di Carlo, Aylin Tekes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: The exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) represents a group of congenitally acquired malformations involving the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is the most common and best studied entity within the EEC. In this review, imaging features of CBE anatomy will be presented with surgical correlation. Recent Findings: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a useful modality for pre- and postnatal assessment of the abdominal wall, pelvic floor, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems of children with CBE. The authors’ experience supports use of preoperative MRI, in conjunction with navigational software, as a method for identifying complex CBE anatomy. Summary: Imaging facilitates surgical approach and improves visualization of complex anatomy, potentially helping to avoid complications. Continued investigation of imaging guidance in CBE repair is needed as surgical techniques improve.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number48
JournalCurrent urology reports
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • Anatomy
  • Classic bladder exstrophy
  • Exstrophy-epispadias complex
  • Imaging guidance
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Surgical repair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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