Analysis protocol for the quantification of renal ph using chemical exchange saturation transfer (cest) mri

Hahnsung Kim, Yin Wu, Daisy Villano, Dario Livio Longo, Michael T. McMahon, Phillip Zhe Sun

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


The kidney plays a major role in maintaining body pH homeostasis. Renal pH, in particular, changes immediately following injuries such as intoxication and ischemia, making pH an early biomarker for kidney injury before the symptom onset and complementary to well-established laboratory tests. Because of this, it is imperative to develop minimally invasive renal pH imaging exams and test pH as a new diagnostic biomarker in animal models of kidney injury before clinical translation. Briefly, iodinated contrast agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for computed tomography (CT) have demonstrated promise as novel chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI agents for pH-sensitive imaging. The generalized ratiometric iopamidol CEST MRI analysis enables concentration-independent pH measurement, which simplifies in vivo renal pH mapping. This chapter describes quantitative CEST MRI analysis for preclinical renal pH mapping, and their application in rodents, including normal conditions and acute kidney injury. This publication is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This analysis protocol chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the basic concepts and experimental procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages22
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)
  • Contrast agents
  • Iopamidol
  • Kidney
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Mice
  • Rats
  • pH
  • pH imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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